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Vol.5 No.5(), Article ID,15 pages DOI/jgis The tool allows users to map cancer incidence and undertake analyses at four spatial methods have been applied to identify spatial clusters of different cancers. .. of the output maps, charts, tables and commentaries were designed to meet the. Dignitaries who will address the opening session include Mohammed He will also inaugurate the Cluster Meet -Phase II on the same day. for Best Teacher in , said teacher attrition is a major administrative challenge. government road map for economic and developmental growth that aims to unable to meet their food needs, according to the United Nations. Saudi Arabia is not a party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions, which bans the weapon. . All but one of the detainees have been in detention since
The winners will compete for Rashtrapathi Puraskar, the top scouts honor in India. Speaking to Saudi Gazette, Shaffe underlined the need for tapping the advantages of technology to the maximum for teaching and learning.
Shaffe also underlined the need for taking advantage of online coaching.
Speaking to Saudi Gazette, Perwez said togetherness was the core principle of the conference. According to Perwez, who is a seasoned academic with a firm conviction to deal with the issues pertaining to discipline and academic standards, the major challenge Indian expatriate students face is the lack of opportunities to expose their talent and academic excellence in competitive examinations while comparing to their counterparts in India.
Pervez also underlined the need to enable students to keep pace with the latest developments in the digital world.
Four major community schools have embarked on this big drive with a wide variety of activities, he said, adding that intensifying awareness among students about preserving environment will be another highlight of the conference. From Table 1it can be seen that the CASA was developed with a greater level of functionality and flexibility. The architecture of the system is outlined in the next section followed by a description of the data, how cancer incidence is reported and an overview of the statistical and spatial interface of the atlas.
The ESRI API provides a comprehensive set of functions for designing and creating professional cartographic products from a client computer or mobile device using a browser. Comparison of the features of different cancer atlases with the CASA.
Architecture of the web-based cancer atlas. Flex was used to build the web client for the atlas, where MXML and Action Script define the layout, appearance and behavior of the application. The web server responds to client requests from the databases or the map server. NET was used to build the web application server, since it is a powerful tool for creating dynamic and interactive web applications. The cancer database is maintained in a Microsoft SQL Server and the operating system is Windows Server, so the application server interfaces with these other components seamlessly.
The map server fulfills spatial queries, conducts spatial analysis, and generates and delivers maps to the client based upon requests by the users. The output from the map server can be a simple map image in a graphic format or map elements served by ArcGIS Server.
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The design of the client interface was the single most important consideration, given that the target end-users were unlikely to have much technical knowledge and skills in computing or the principles of GIS.
The design was partly driven by a review of existing atlases Table 1which were critiqued from a design as well as a functionality perspective. Users were also involved in the development process in order to offer the right level of GIS functionality while still providing the opportunity to create high-quality maps, charts, tables and commentaries on cancer incidence.
The system is also flexible enough to allow for additional functionality to be added in the future based on feedback from the users.
Choice of variables and options was designed to be as intuitive as possible. The design was implemented and tested with a set of potential users. The system provided considerable flexibility in terms of satisfying the needs of the users and high levels of responsiveness and performance during tests in an office where client computers were connected over a local network to a server in the office. The result was a web-based client-server system which is relatively straight-forward to use, offers the option of an Arabic or an English interface and worked well during feedback sessions with staff who work in the Saudi Cancer Registry.
Only the English interface is shown in this paper.
The atlas is currently only available on an internal network at the Saudi Cancer Registry while testing continues for the next year and feedback continues to be collected. The plan is to then open up the atlas to relevant health agencies and organizations working at the regional level in Saudi Arabia. Data The data were supplied by the Saudi Cancer Registry SCRa government agency which collects, collates and evaluates statistics on cancer incidence, survival and mortality in Saudi Arabia.
The statistics on cancer incidence included the most common types of cancers which had been reported and recorded in Saudi Arabia from January to December The total number of patients diagnosed with cancer in this period was 45, The SCR has detailed medical information about each individual cancer case, but due to confidentiality, this data has not been made available for the atlas.
After georeferencing and cleaning the original cancer database, there were fourteen variables for each individual cancer case, including: The data were then aggregated for use at four spatial levels: At present there are no plans to analyze the data at a finer scale.
To estimate the annual population between andthe Saudi census was used, along with annual population growth estimates . Estimates were compiled for the four levels of geographical resolution. Growth rates were obtained from the Central Department of Statistics and Information CDSI for the whole of Saudi Arabia and the thirteen regions; as gender is not distinguishable in this data, estimates were used.
Growth rates were not available at the governorate or city region so they were assigned the growth rates of the regions in which they are contained.
This could be subject to the ecological fallacy , as areas within a region are unlikely to all be the same. However, given the data available, this was the best possible solution. Reporting of Cancer Incidence The rates of cancer incidence in each administrative zone over a geographical region provide an important measure of the relative risks of individual cancers in each zone. Such rates provide direct estimates of the probability or risk of cancer or other illnesses and are particularly important for epidemiological studies.
The absolute or relative rates of cancer incidence are especially important for comparative studies, e.
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The CIR is expressed as the total number of incidences of cancer for eachpeople in the population. However, rates of cancer incidence vary greatly with age, and the crude rate is strongly influenced by the demographic structure of a population. Hence, if the population structure changes over a period, the crude rate over that period may be artificially altered.
For similar reasons, one cannot compare crude rates across geographical areas with different population age structures. Therefore, in order to assess trends in the incidence of a particular type of cancer or compare the incidence over geographical areas or between different cancer registries, it is necessary to standardize the rates with respect to age through computing the AIR.
The AIR is the number of particular types of cancer incidences occurring during a specific period in a population of a specific age and gender, divided by the number of the mid-year population of that age and gender. The AIR for age class i is calculated as: The Age-Standardized Incidence Rate ASR is a summary measure of the rate of cancer incidence which a population would have if it had a standard age structure.
Standardization is necessary when comparing several populations which differ with respect to age structure; in effect, this allows the researcher to keep age constant to see how a rate varies across areas. The most frequently used standard population is the World Standard Population. The calculated incidence of a cancer is known as the World Standardized Incidence Rate.
The populations in each age-class of the Standard Population are used as weights in the standardization process.
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Expressed perpeople, the ASR can be computed as : In a statistical sense, the ASR represents an estimate of some true parameter value which could only be known if the units of observation were infinitely large.
Therefore, it is usual to give some measure of uncertainty of the estimated rate, such as the standard error SE of the rate. The standard error can also be used to calculate confidence intervals CI for the rate, which are intuitively rather easier to interpret.
Both of these measures are computed in the atlas. With the CASA, users are able to collate data over time, choose from a range of available map styles e. This section provides an overview of the functionality contained in the two main interfaces in the atlas, i. A detailed help file and manual are available for users of the atlas.
These five panels are linked to each other and work in a dynamic and interactive way, i. The analysis panel is used to select the type of cancer analysis, which is then displayed in the figure and table panels on the right hand side.
The user first selects the spatial level for analysis from a drop-down list where the options are National, Regional, Governorate or Cities. At the national level, a user can analyze and explore cancer distributions over the whole of Saudi Arabia, while at the regional level, the exploration and analysis of cancer distributions, variations, trends and patterns are conducted over the thirteen administrative regions.
As for the governorate level, a user can view and analyze cancer distributions over the governorates. At the city spatial level, the analysis is undertaken on cancer data over the cities and towns. Radio buttons then allow the user to select all cancers for analysis or just the most common cancers, followed by an option to choose standard or advanced analyses.
This is followed by a list of types of different analyses that the user can select. The Saudi Cricket Centre, which is the authorized body of the sport of cricket in Saudi Arabia, has made this selection. He scored classy runs in the qualifying match held in Jeddah.
He then scored three centuries in the season with a batting average of 89 runs. He has been selected in the Saudi Team as an unparalleled opening batsman. Hisham has been provided with a lot of opportunities in various parts of the Kingdom to prove his mettle as a brilliant cricket player at his very young age.
He adopted his own style in his cricket play, inspired by the professional cricket players of international teams including of the Indian cricketers. His remarkable batting and bowling fashion leaves the cricket audience mesmerized. He is applying himself entirely in the right manner in order to get to in the all-rounder position at a fast pace. His cricket journey continued to be in top form when he was chosen for U cricket team for the Saudi Cricket Talent Hunt Programme.
The event, which was colourfully witnessed with the presence of the cricket celebrity Shahid Afridi, was organized in January, by the Royal Academy of Cricket in Riyadh under the International Cricket Council and Asian Cricket Development Programme.