give some examples of cause and effect relationship of management? | Yahoo Answers
Management schools and gurus tell us that specific managerial actions A cause-effect relationship is often assumed, but in reality the causal. This chapter presents a broad survey of the cause-effect relation, with particular emphasis on .. preposition links a noun phrase to the clause, for example, Management: 10th European Workshop, EKAW '97 Proceedings (pp). Cause and effect is one of the most commonly misunderstood concepts in science and Some examples of this are rife in alternative therapy, when a group of scientists must contain measures to establish the cause and effect relationship.
A cause-effect relationship is often assumed, but in reality the causal connection between strategic management actions and organisational outcomes is tenuous.
Give some examples of cause and effect relationship of management?
This post, based on a paper by Glenn Shafer entitled Causality and Responsibilityis an exploration of the causal connection between managerial actions and their assumed consequences. In the latter, cause and effect is generally quite clear cut. For example, the decision to initiate a project sets in motion several processes that have fairly predictable outcomes.
It is the latter point that is of interest here — the causal connection between a strategic decision and its assumed outcome. In short, did the actions of the accused cause the outcome? The arguments Shafer makes are quite general, and have applicability to any discipline.
Cause and effect in management | Eight to Late
Deterministic cause-effect relationships The first point that Shafer makes is that we should infer that a particular action causes a particular outcome only if it is improbable that the outcome could have happened without the action preceding it. It is not surprising, therefore, that the classical legal concept of cause — necessary and sufficient cause — is defined in terms of impossibility. According to this concept, an action causes an event if the event must happen it is impossible for it not to happen when the action is taken and cannot happen it is impossible for it to happen if the action is not taken.
This is, in fact, what legal arguments attempt to do: In contrast, if something is deemed possible in the light of existing knowledge, it can be rendered false by a single contradictory fact. The implication of the above for cause and effect in management is clear: The outcome must almost always happen if the managerial action occurs.
It is highly unlikely that the outcome could have occurred without the action occurring prior to it. Seen in this light, many of the prescriptions laid out in management bestsellers are little better than herpetological oleum. This begs the question: That is, what can we say about claims that a particular action results in a particular effect, but only in a fraction of the instances in which the action occurs?
To address this question, Shafer makes the important point that probabilities not close to zero or one have no meaning in isolation. They have meaning only in a system, and their meaning derives from the impossibility of a successful gambling strategy—the probability close to one that no one can make a substantial amount of money betting at the odds given by the probabilities.
The last part of the previous statement is a consequence of how probabilities are validated empirically. We validate a system of probabilities empirically by performing statistical tests.
Each such test checks whether observations have some overall property that the system says they are practically certain to have. It checks, in other words, on whether observations diverge from the probabilistic model in a way that the model says is practically approximately impossible. In Probability and Finance: The loud sound of the alarm was the cause.
Without the alarm, you probably would have overslept. In this scenario, the alarm had the effect of you waking up at a certain time. This is what we mean by cause and effect.
Cause & Effect Relationship on Project Management & Cost Overruns
A cause-effect relationship is a relationship in which one event the cause makes another event happen the effect. One cause can have several effects. For example, let's say you were conducting an experiment using regular high school students with no athletic ability.
The purpose of our experiment is to see if becoming an all-star athlete would increase their attractiveness and popularity ratings among other high school students.
Suppose that your results showed that not only did the students view the all-star athletes as more attractive and popular, but the self-confidence of the athletes also improved.
Cause and Effect Relationship: Definition & Examples - Video & Lesson Transcript | ogloszenia-praca.info
Here we see that one cause having the status of an all-star athlete has two effects increased self-confidence and higher attractiveness ratings among other students. Cause-Effect Criteria In order to establish a cause-effect relationship, three criteria must be met. The first criterion is that the cause has to occur before the effect.
This is also known as temporal precedence. In the example above, the students had to become all-star athletes before their attractiveness ratings and self-confidence improved. For example, let's say that you were conducting an experiment to see if making a loud noise would cause newborns to cry. In this example, the loud noise would have to occur before the newborns cried.