Iran-U.S. relations: A brief history | CTV News
Since cutting ties in , U.S.-Iran dialogue has been sparse and largely fruitless. Secret contacts between the United States and Iran took place in the context of a complex three-way deal aimed at freeing . Political History and Theory. A brief history of the long-strained relations between the United States and Iran: A CIA-backed coup overthrows Iranian Prime Minister. From the CIA-orchestrated overthrow of Iran's prime minister to a BBC News looks at more than 60 years of tricky US-Iran relations. Mr Rouhani used his Twitter account to break the news of the historic conversation. football being kicked on a field - Vauxhall image blurred in the background.
This partnership was complicated, however, by mounting Iranian resentment against Britain and AIOC, which exported millions of barrels of oil and made huge profits while paying Iran next to nothing. In OctoberMohammed Mossadegh, a long-time critic of the Pahlavi dynasty who insisted that Iran had a right to control its own oil industry, founded the National Front, a broad coalition that included both middle-class moderates as well as firebrands from the left-wing Tudeh or "Workers" Party.
Mossadegh and his supporters soon held the balance of power in the Majlis, the Iranian parliament, where they called for AIOC to split its profits with Iran on a basis, as other multinational oil firms operating in Venezuela and Saudi Arabia had recently agreed to do. On 15 Marchthe Majlis responded with legislation nationalizing the Iranian petroleum industry.
Six weeks later, Mossadegh became prime minister and announced plans to wrest control of Iran's oil fields and refineries from Britain as soon as possible. American officials, who had urged the British to accept a last-minute profit-sharing compromise, were appalled.
Timeline: Iran-US relations | News | Al Jazeera
The MI6, Britain's overseas intelligence service, had developed a covert network of contacts among Iranian politicians and military officers and was quite confident that Mossadegh could be deposed with little bloodshed, provided the United States had no objection. Neither the White House nor the State Department, however, was enamored of the MI6 plot, especially after Mossadegh learned most of the details in October and expelled Britain's diplomats and spooks from Iran.
Just two months before handing the keys to the Oval Office over to Dwight Eisenhower, Harry Truman insisted that all covert action in Tehran be put on hold. Ike's secretary of state, John Foster Dulles, was a rabid anti-communist who dismissed Mohammed Mossadegh as a Russian stooge and who saw the Tudeh Party as the entering wedge for a Kremlin takeover in Tehran.
Allen Dulles, the new CIA director and John Foster's younger brother, was an avid proponent of covert action with close ties to Britain's MI6 and had few qualms about meddling in the internal affairs of Iran or any other nation deemed vulnerable to Soviet subversion. With Eisenhower's blessing, the Dulles brothers resurrected the dormant plot to topple Mossadegh and sent Kermit Roosevelt, a veteran CIA covert operator—whose grandfather Theodore had once sat in the White House—to Tehran in the spring of to make the necessary arrangements.
Roosevelt's plan, code-named "Operation Ajax," was really quite simple. In exchange for strong assurances of U. When the Shah announced the change of government on 16 Augusthowever, Mossadegh ignored him and responded instead by issuing a warrant for Zahedi's arrest. Not long afterward, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi flew to Rome for an unscheduled vacation, Zahedi went into hiding, and the CIA went back to the drawing board.
Forty-eight hours later, Kermit Roosevelt orchestrated what he later termed "a counter-coup" against Mossadegh. With help from Britain's MI6, Roosevelt distributed a quarter-million dollars in bribes to mobilize hundreds of pro-Shah mercenaries, who stormed into the streets chanting anti-government slogans and staged violent clashes with Mossadegh's supporters.
Meanwhile, General Zahedi and right-wing military officers moved to restore order, rounding up Tudeh Party militants, arresting Prime Minister Mossadegh, and inviting the Shah to return to Tehran in triumph. Having convinced themselves that Iran was about to fall to communism, Eisenhower and the Dulles brothers had encouraged pro-American forces to overthrow a democratically elected Iranian leader and place an increasingly autocratic ruler back on the Peacock Throne.
A year later, he agreed to join the Central Treaty Organization, an anti-Soviet pact sponsored by the Eisenhower administration, and permitted the United States to establish electronic surveillance posts along Iran's border with Russia. The Shah sealed his partnership with the United States during the early s, when Iran aligned itself with Israel under American auspices to curb Soviet influence among Arab nationalists like Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser.
Exposed inthe scandal cripples the final two years of Ronald Reagan's presidency. Iran and its proxy, Hezbollah, are blamed for a attack on the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, that kills 29 people, and an attack on a Jewish community centre there two years later that kills President Bill Clinton imposes far-reaching oil and trade sanctions on Iran in Khatami promotes a "dialogue among civilizations" and reaches out to Western leaders.
Officials from both sides co-ordinate before the U. Months later, President George W. Bush enrages Iran by including it with Iraq and North Korea in his "axis of evil. Ahmadinejad calls for the elimination of Israel, a key U.
US-Iran relations: A brief guide - BBC News
He sends Bush an page letter criticizing the U. With Iraq in chaos, U. Anti-war sentiment rises in the United States and Bush and his advisers play down talk of war and join nuclear negotiations between world powers and Iran. At the same time, the U. The diplomatic effort yields three rounds of UN penalties between and demanding Tehran stop enriching uranium and exporting weapons.
Timeline: Iran-US relations
They also slap Iran with banking, trade and travel restrictions. Engagement becomes difficult after hard-liner Ahmadinejad wins another term. On the sidelines of nuclear talks in Octobera senior U.US Iran Relations - Iranian Issue and Conflict Explained - Unacademy News Room - Episode 8
Iran backs out of a deal reached with world powers to ship much of its higher-enriched uranium out of the country. Obama faces pressure at home and abroad over Iran's nuclear program.
He urges patience from Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who threatens an Israeli military intervention. Sanctions against Iran Families wait for the former hostages to disembark the plane. Before the Revolution, the United States was Iran's foremost economic and military partner. This facilitated the modernization of Iran's infrastructure and industry, with as many as 30, American expatriates residing in the country in a technical, consulting, or teaching capacity.
A brief history of US-Iranian relations
Some analysts argue that the transformation may have been too rapid, fueling unrest and discontent among an important part of the population in the country and leading to the Revolution in According to American officials, most of those were released in as part of the deal to release the hostages. Commercial relations between Iran and the United States are restricted by American sanctions and consist mainly of Iranian purchases of food, spare parts, and medical products as well as American purchases of carpets and food.
Sanctions originally imposed in by President Bill Clinton were renewed by President Bush, who cited the "unusual and extraordinary threat" to American national security posed by Iran. The executive orders prohibit American companies and their foreign subsidiaries from conducting business with Iran, while banning any "contract for the financing of the development of petroleum resources located in Iran".
The ILSA was renewed for five more years in Congressional bills signed in extended and added provisions to the act; on September 30,the act was renamed the Iran Sanctions Act ISAas it no longer applied to Libya, and extended until December 31, Reagan administration[ edit ] See also: United States support for Iraq during the Iran—Iraq war American intelligence and logistical support played a crucial role in arming Iraq in the Iran—Iraq Waralthough Bob Woodward states that the United States gave information to both sides, hoping "to engineer a stalemate".
Bush authorized the sale to Iraq of numerous dual-use items, including poisonous chemicals and deadly biological viruses, such as anthrax and bubonic plague. Hezbollah bombings[ edit ] The United States contends that Hezbollaha Shi'ite Islamist organization and client of Iran, has been involved in several anti-American terrorist attacks, including the April United States Embassy bombing which killed 17 Americans, the Beirut barracks bombing which killed US peace keepers in Lebanonand the Khobar Towers bombing.
An American district court judge ruled in that the April United States Embassy bombing was carried out with Iranian support. Lamberth declared that the Islamic Republic of Iran was responsible for the attack in a case brought by the victims' families. Lamberth concluded that Hezbollah was formed under the auspices of the Iranian government, was completely reliant on Iran inand assisted Iranian Ministry of Information and Security agents in carrying out the operation.
Anti-communist purge[ edit ] According to the Tower Commission report: Inthe U. Using this information, the Khomeini government took measures, including mass executions, that virtually eliminated the pro-Soviet infrastructure in Iran.
Iran—Contra affair In violation of an arms embargo, officials of President Ronald Reagan's administration arranged in the mids to sell armaments to Iran in an attempt to improve relations with Iran and obtain their influence in the release of hostages held in Lebanon.
Oliver North of the National Security Council then diverted proceeds from the arms sale to fund Contra rebels attempting to overthrow the left wing government of Nicaraguawhich was in direct violation of the United States Congress ' Boland Amendment.
Iran lost one major warship and a smaller gunboat. Damage to the oil platforms was eventually repaired. The court dismissed the claim but noted that "the actions of the United States of America against Iranian oil platforms on October 19, Operation Nimble Archer and April 18, Operation Praying Mantis cannot be justified as measures necessary to protect the essential security interests of the United States of America.
Iran Air Flight [ edit ] Main article: Iran Air Flight George H. Bush said that he would "never apologize for the United States of America. I don't care what the facts are.