4 ways the ozone hole is linked to climate, and 1 way it isn’t | NOAA ogloszenia-praca.info
The ozone layer remains depleted, the ocean continues to warm, ice continues no direct relationship to the details of observed global warming. While they suggest many interesting ideas, there has been little agreement. many fields, who agree that the global environment is changing in ways that could have Ozone depletion and global warming and their health effects are discussed . UV radiation flux are needed, in relation to incidence rates of skin cancer. Global warming and ozone layer depletion are two different problems (see the much of the warming humans are responsible for, and what might be the best ways to . as well as activities for investigating relationships between the concepts.
Ozone is destroyed by chlorine released from manufactured chlorofluorocarbon gases CFCs used widely since as refrigerants, spray-can propellants, solvents, and fire suppressants.
This stopped increasing ozone depletion bystopping increases in global temperature by Ozone depletion caused by CFCs explains the onset and termination of recent global warming.
Explosive volcanoes form aerosols near the ozone layer, reflecting sunlight and cooling Earth. But effusive volcanoes common in Hawaii and Iceland, deplete the ozone layer causing global warming.
This is good news.
Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion
We can develop all available sources of energy to meet growing demand without worrying about greenhouse gas emissions. But we do need to find ways to reduce pollution, especially in China, India, and much of Southeast Asia.
Ozone depletion increases the risks of sunburn and skin cancer. Understanding that global warming is caused by ozone depletion, not greenhouse gases, has major implications for investments in energy. The ozone-depletion theory of global warming provides, for the first time, a clear, straight-forward explanation for observations not easily explained by greenhouse-gas theory. Why global mean surface temperatures began to rise around after having been relatively constant since Why global mean surface temperatures have been essentially constant since Why the heat content of the oceans continues to rise even though surface temperatures have remained nearly constant.
Why the greatest warming observed since has been in the locations and at the times when ozone depletion was greatest. Why warming is greatest in polar regions. Why temperatures were unusually high and drought unusually severe throughout much of North America in and while flooding was a severe problem in Europe. Why ice ages occur and why they end.
Why climate was warmed suddenly at specific times throughout geologic history. This website documents extensive observations, analysis, and discussion of the distribution of ozone, the locations and times of ozone depletion, the relationships of ozone concentrations to ozone depleting substances, and the implications for global climate change.
It also discusses issues related to greenhouse gases and the energy contained in radiation.
Tips for using this website This website is designed for climate scientists, but it covers a wide variety of scientific specialties. The chlorine comes from chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, for shortwhich were widely used in early refrigeration and cooling systems.
The Ozone Depletion Theory of Global Warming
Under most atmospheric conditions, when CFCs begin to degrade, the chlorine they contain first gets incorporated into variety of smaller molecules that do not directly harm the ozone layer. Stratospheric ozone concentrations in spring in the Southern left, September 19—26 and Northern right, March Hemispheres. Each year, ozone amounts drop below Dobson Units—the threshold that marks the start of an ozone hole—across a large area of Antarctica.
Northern Hemisphere values are rarely that low.
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The large-scale transformation of relatively harmless forms of chlorine into an army of ozone-destroying assassins only takes place in one environment: As colorful as any aurora, iridescent polar stratospheric clouds glitter in the low light of the spring sunrise at McMurdo Station in Antarctica in late August or early September Such conditions are periodically met over the Arctic and other high latitude locations, but the only place where such deep cold persists over a wide area is in the stratosphere over Antarctica in the winter and early spring.
During the Antarctic winter, when polar stratospheric clouds become widespread, chemical reactions convert less reactive forms of chlorine into large amounts of highly reactive forms. These highly reactive gases have such a weak hold on their chlorine atoms that they are only stable in the dark.
Is There a Connection Between the Ozone Hole and Global Warming?
A single chlorine-containing free radical can catalyze the destruction of thousands and thousands of ozone molecules. Ozone destruction usually peaks in mid-October. Ozone loss tapers off in late spring as the polar vortex weakens.
Temperatures rise, and fewer clouds form. Ozone-rich air from lower latitudes mixes back into the polar stratosphere, and the ozone hole disappears until the next spring.
Global Warming is Caused by Ozone Depletion, Not Greenhouse Gases
The largest ozone holes are often associated with the coldest winters Thanks to the Montreal Protocolthe production and use of ozone-damaging chemicals has declined. But CFCs are extremely long-lived under most atmospheric conditions, so it will be decades before the global concentration returns to pre levels.
Ozone-depleting gases reached their peak concentrations in the mid-latitudes purple in the mids and over Antarctica blue in the early s. Because it takes decades for chlorofluorocarbons to degrade, it will be many decades before the ozone hole recovers. In the meantime, the size of the ozone hole in any given year is influenced by natural variability in global atmospheric circulation.
These variations influence the spread of ozone-depleting chemicals into the polar stratosphere, and, most importantly, they determine the extent and severity of cold temperatures.