Culture of Turkey - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family
Further information about the Project, and links to the evidence base and . tongue', and religion are often symbolic markers of Turkish ethnicity.4 More generally, in particular cities and areas has kept the Turkish language and other cultural. compare rather unfavorably with some other OECD countries that have number of studies which trace links between religious attitudes and Cultural values of which religion are a constitutive aspect continue to effect. The culture of Turkey combines a heavily diverse and heterogeneous set of elements that have been derived from the various cultures of the Eastern Because of the different historical factors defining the Turkish identity the culture of Political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes were designed.
The gendarmerie maintains security outside municipal boundaries and guards land borders against illegal entry and smuggling. Recruits are supplied through military conscription.
Gendarmes have been subject to the same criticisms as the national police. Turkey abandoned Islamic law and adopted the Italian penal code in Serious crimes include premeditated homicide, theft, arson, armed robbery, embezzlement of state property, perjury, and rape. Political speech insulting the president, the military, and parliament has been criminalized. The antiterror law criminalizes written and oral propaganda, meetings, and demonstrations aimed at damaging the unity of the state.
The death penalty can be imposed for certain crimes against the state and premeditated murder, but there have been no executions since Conviction for a serious felony can disqualify one from holding public office, voting, and practicing certain professions.
Compared to other Middle Eastern countries, the incidence of ordinary crime is low. The most common felonies resulting in incarceration in were crimes against property 8,crimes against individuals 5,and crimes against "public decency and family order" 2, Every year an unknown number of people are incarcerated for illegal political activity and thought crimes, such as advocating an Islamic state or cultural rights for an ethnic minority.
In addition to Kurdish nationalism, Turkey's security forces are concerned with narcotics trafficking, since Turkey is a route for the transfer of Coffeehouses are male domains. The Turkish military plays political, cultural, and security roles.
Military leaders created the republic inreplaced civilian governments in andand forced a civilian government out of office in Because of universal male conscription, the military is a major national socialization agent for young men of different regions, classes, and ethnicities. Since joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization inTurkey has maintained a large military consisting of land forces, navy, air force, coast guard, and gendarmerie.
Init hadofficers and enlisted men on active duty. Defense is usually the largest category in the national budget; from toit averaged 20 percent of total government expenditures. Social Welfare and Change Programs Inthe government estimated that Employers pay insurance premiums for work-related injuries, occupational diseases, and maternity leave; employers and employees pay premiums to cover illness, disability, retirement, and death benefits.
The government also offers social security insurance to the self-employed and operates orphanages. Local associations or nongovernmental organizations NGOs associated with mosques and crafts also provide welfare to the needy. It controls a huge investment fund of obligatory and voluntary contributions from military personnel and investment profits.
It has invested substantially in the auto, truck, tractor, and tire industries; the petrochemical, cement, and food processing industries; and retail and service enterprises. Through OYAK, the Turkish military became partners with foreign and domestic investors and shares their economic interests. Because of OYAK's investments, the economic security of thousands of active and retired armed forces personnel became dependent on the profitability of large capitalistic enterprises.
Consequently, military corporate interests expanded into the areas of labor law, trade unionism, trade and monetary policy, corporate taxation, tariffs, investment banking, and related matters. Other major NGOs include the Turkish Trade Association, representing the interests of merchants, industrialists, and commodity brokers; the Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions, representing employers; and the Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions, representing labor.
In addition, NGOs exist for practically every interest group in crafts, sports, social issues, education, religion, and the arts. Turkish law guarantees equal pay for equal work and has opened practically all educational programs and occupations to women.
Exceptions are the religious schools that train imams Islamic prayer leaders and the job of imam itself. In general, men dominate the high-status occupations in business, the military, government, the professions, and academia. According to traditional values, women should do domestic work and not work in the public arena or with unrelated men.
However, women have begun to work more in public. Lower-class women generally have worked as maids, house cleaners, women's tailors, seamstresses, child care givers, agricultural laborers, and nurses, but in the early s, about 20 percent of factory employees and many store clerks were women. Middle-class women commonly are employed as teachers and bank tellers, while upper-class women work as doctors, lawyers, engineers, and university teachers.
Only a small percentage of women are politicians. Men work in all these fields but avoid the traditional nonagricultural occupations of lower-class women.
Religion in Turkey
Men monopolize the officer ranks in the military and the transportation occupations of pilot and taxi, truck, and bus driver. In urban areas, lower-class men work in crafts, manufacturing, and low-paid service industries.
Middle-class men work as teachers, accountants, businessmen, and middle-level managers. Upper-class men work as university teachers, professionals, upper-level managers, businessmen, and entrepreneurs.
Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Turks expect adults to marry and have children, and the vast majority do.
Because men should not lower their wives' standard of living, they are not supposed to marry women of a higher economic class. People generally marry within their own religious sect and ethnic group, although interethnic marriages among Sunni Muslims are not uncommon.
In traditional Turkish society, the selection of spouses and the marriage ceremony were controlled by kin groups. During the premarital process, the individuals to be married played minor roles. The rituals, especially the imam marriage ceremony, were essential for a morally and socially acceptable marriage. Inthe revolutionary Turkish government abolished Islamic family law and adopted a slightly modified version of the family law in the Swiss civil code.
The new Family Law requires and recognizes civil marriage ceremonies only. It requires the consent of mature individuals for a binding marriage contract and prescribes monogamy only.
Even though the law prohibits parents from entering into engagement or marital agreements on behalf of their children, arranged marriages without the consent of the brides have been somewhat common. In a survey, The figures for the unconsented arranged marriages ranged from 7. This response category ranged from Today the vast majority of marriages occur with the couple's consent, but families still play a role recommending and screening potential spouses, especially for their daughters.
Even though divorce is not considered an Islamic sin, it occurs infrequently. Divorcees, especially men with children, quickly remarry, usually to divorced women. The new code eliminated a husband's Islamic prerogative of verbal and unilateral divorce and prescribed a court proceeding.
The law recognizes only six grounds for divorce: The evidentiary requirements are so substantial that establishing one of these grounds has proved difficult. A couple cannot divorce by mutual consent.
Domestic Unit, Inheritance, and Kin Groups. Traditionally, most Turks traced their descent and passed on property, especially homes and land, through the male line. Even though most households have always contained only one nuclear family, the ideal household, especially among the rural and urban wealthy, was patrilocal extended, in which a son and his bride lived in his parents' home after marriage.
The basic kinship units are the family aile and the household hane. Household members normally eat together and share income and expenses. The next larger unit is the patrilineage sulaleconsisting of relatives connected intergenerationally by a common male ancestor.
While patrilineage is important to old, noble Ottoman families and tribal peoples, it is of little significance to most Turks. The traditional Turkish household is characterized by male dominance, respect for elders, and female subservience.
The father or oldest male is the head, an authority figure who demands respect and obedience. The mother is also respected, but her relationship with her children is warm and informal.
Although supreme authority ordinarily rests with the father, the household is usually mother-centered. The mother, being largely confined to the home, manages and directs its internal affairs. The division of labor has traditionally been clear-cut, with women having responsibility for the internal home, and men providing the income and representing the household to the outside world.
Turkey - Turkish Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette
Before the s, even grocery shopping was a male duty. In recent decades, much of this has changed.
The new Family Law grants women equal rights to private property and inheritance. A larger percentage of women work outside the home, and educated women demand more equal rights. Socialization Women are very protective of their children. Breast-feeding for a year or more is common. The child commonly sleeps in a hammock or crib near the parents. Boys are socialized to be courageous, assertive, proud, and respectful of elders. When they undergo a painful circumcision ceremony between ages 9 and 12, they are told to be as brave as lions.
Girls are socialized to be modest, compliant, supportive of males, virtuous, and skilled in domestic tasks. Fathers are authoritarian disciplinarians; mothers are generally loving and nurturing. Every woman rejoices when giving birth to a son, because that event increases her status in the eyes of her husband, in-laws, and community.
She usually pampers her son, who remains close to her until age 10 or 11, after which he spends most of his time with other males and identifies more closely with men.
Mothers and daughters are especially close, as daughters usually spend much of their premarital lives close to their mothers, learning domestic skills: Generally, the father—daughter relationship is rather formal, with little public displaying of affection. Although a daughter or son may argue or joke with the mother, they are respectful and subdued in the father's presence.
During prepubescence, relations between brothers and sisters are free and easy. Later, their statuses change as the older sibling takes on some of the rights and duties of a parent. The older sister abla becomes like a second mother, loved for her warmth and affection. The older brother agabey assumes the helpful but authoritarian status of a minor father. In extended families, grandparents, especially grandmothers, provide a good deal of child care.
School attendance is compulsory to age The first day of class constitutes an important rite of passage. The children are dressed in black smocks with white collars and taken to school with pomp and ceremony. Most families that can afford it, keep their children in school beyond age Most would like to see their children, especially their sons, complete university, but this is rarely possible for poor families.
Etiquette Formal etiquette is central to Turkish culture, governing most social interactions and the use of space. Turkish culture has an exact verbal formula for practically every occasion. Etiquette requires the pronouncement of the proper formulas for these occasions.
Strict etiquette governs intergenerational and heterosexual interactions. Unless they are close friends or relatives, older people are addressed formally. For example, older men should be addressed with the title "Bey" Mister and women with the title "Hanim" Lady. Younger people are expected to be reserved in their presence.
Adults of the opposite sex are expected not to act casually or show affection toward each other in public. Friends of the same sex may hold hands and greet each other with kisses on the cheek. Upon meeting, men shake hands, but a man does not shake a woman's hand unless she extends it to him. People are not criticized for being late. Business meetings usually are preceded by tea and unrelated conversation.
Culture of Turkey
Consideration for companions is important. One does not drink, smoke, or eat something without first offering to share it with one's companions. Ninety-eight percent of Turks are nominally Muslim.
Homes are divided into guest and private areas, and it is improper to ask for a tour of the house. The soles of shoes are considered dirty, and shoes are removed when one enters a home or mosque. Islamic tradition, ideology, and ritual are very important. About 98 percent of Turkey's citizens are nominally Muslims, of whom about 80 to 85 percent are Sunnis of the Hanafi school and 15 to 20 percent are members of Shiite sects mostly Alevi.
Turkish Muslims recognize the standard Islamic creed and duties, but only the most religious fast or make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Four percent of Turks identify themselves as atheists, and 4 percent as agnostics.
For most Turks, Islam plays an important role in rites of passage: The state controls religious education and most religious personnel by supervising the schools that train Sunni imams and certifying imams as state employees who work in community mosques.
In recent decades, a revival of fundamental Islam has been supported by about 20 percent of the population. A small proportion of the population participates in Sufi orders and brotherhoods. The most important events in the Turkey's Islamic calendar are Ramazanthe lunar month of fast; Kadir Gecesi Night of Powerthe twenty-seventh day of Ramazanwhen Mohammad was appointed the messenger of Allah; Sheker Bayram a three-day national holiday at the end of Ramazan in which people exchange visits and candy; and Kurban Bayram Feast of Sacrificea four-day national holiday held during the lunar month of Hajj Pilgrimage to commemorate Abraham's willingness to sacrifice Isaac.
As many as 2. Medicine and Health Care. Modern Western medical services have expanded significantly over the past two decades. The Ministry of Health is authorized to provide medical care and preventive health services, train health personnel, establish and operate hospitals and clinics, inspect private health facilities, and regulate pharmacies.
InTurkey had 12, health facilities and a doctor for every 1, persons. The incidence of measles, pertussis, typhoid fever, and diphtheria has declined markedly since the s. Infant mortality declined from per 1, in to 55 per 1, in In rural areas, midwives deliver most babies.
Most urban dwellers have access to public health facilities, but many rural citizens do not. In the countryside and among recent migrants to the cities, folk medicine is still practiced. Peasant women learn folk medicine involving herbs, spices, prayers, and rituals from their mothers and apply it to family members instead of or in addition to modern medicine. Traditionally, some men specialized in folk medicine as well. Secular Celebrations The major secular celebrations and official holidays begin with New Year's Day on 1 January, an adoption from the West.
Many people exchange greetings cards, and some celebrate in a Western fashion. Because 23 April is also National Children's Day, much of the day is devoted to children's activities such as dances and music recitals. Victory Day, celebrating victorious battles during Turkey's War of Independence, is observed on 30 August. Both Victory Day and Republic Day are celebrated with patriotic parades, music, and speeches.
The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts. The Ministry of Culture has implemented a policy of promoting nonreligious Turkish and Western art. It provides a limited number of scholarships for the study of art and music in Europe, especially France. The ministry also supports the Academy of Fine Arts and art museums in the major cities. Most artists come from the middle and upper classes in major cities.
Graphic artists rely primarily on major corporations and the upper class to buy their work. They sell through private exhibition and a limited number of art shops. Traditional craft artists who produce ceramics, rugs and kilims, brass and copper ornaments, and embroidery have a broader market for their work. Most sculptors rely largely on state commissions.
Until the middle of the nineteenth century, Turkish literature centered on the Ottoman court, which produced poetry and some prose. This literature represented a fusion of Persian, Arabic, and Turkish classical styles. Western influences were introduced in the s by a group of intellectuals who attempted to combine Western cultural forms with a more simple form of the Turkish language.
This westernizing trend continued throughout the nineteenth century and became more pronounced just before World War I. Afterthe republic produced an impressive number of novelists, poets, singers, musicians, and artists.
Orhan Veli generally is considered the father of modern Turkish poetry, which has been characterized by a rebellion against rigidly prescribed forms and a preoccupation with immediate perception. Some poets have experimented with obscurantist forms and ideas; many others have expressed concern for social democratic issues. Western influence in the graphic arts began in the late Ottoman period with the founding of the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul, which continues to be staffed by European and European-educated Turkish artists.
In the republican periods, Turkish art has involved a mixture of Western and indigenous styles.
Turkey - Cultural life | ogloszenia-praca.info
Practically all artists of note have studied at the academy or in Europe. Some have imitated European forms, while others have searched for a Turkish style and portray Turkish themes such as village and urban scenes in a representational manner.
Foreign plays outnumber Turkish works in the theater, but theater attendance has grown in recent decades and many Turkish playwrights who combine Western techniques with Turkish social issues have had an opportunity to present their works. Both Ankara and Istanbul have well-respected opera companies. They wear some locally customary combination of baggy trousers, skirts, and aprons. This practice has been revived among the more devout urban women, though the scarf is often combined with Western dress.
Turkish boys in traditional dress. Men and women are to maintain a state of ritual purity, pray five times a day, fast during the month of Ramadan every year, and strive, if possible, to visit Mecca at least once in their lifetime. Islam provides basic ideas about the nature of moralitycharity, transgression, reward and punishment, and relations between men and women, as well as about cleanliness and impurity.
Social roles and kinship Male and female roles In rural areas the main responsibilities of the men are the heavy agricultural work, looking after the livestock, and making all contacts outside the home, both official and economic, including shopping. One consequence of this is that men are more dependent on women than women are on men, and a bereaved widower who has no other adult women in his household may remarry within a few days or weeks.
Women are concerned with the care of children and their houses and with the preparation and cooking of food. They are also responsible for milking, caring for the chickens, making cakes of winter fuel from dung and straw, weeding vegetable plots near the village, and reaping barley and other short-stemmed crops. Overall, women are responsible for a high proportion of the agricultural work in addition to their domestic duties.
In urban areas the role of women is related to social class. Women were given the right to vote inwomen were first elected to parliament inand a woman first held the prime ministership in the s.
Women are found in medicine, science, and the arts, and increasing numbers of women work in industry and the service sector. Inthe Armenian Patriarch submitted a proposal to the Minister of Education to enable his community to establish a faculty in the Armenian language at a state university with instruction by the Patriarch.
Under current restrictions, only the Sunni Muslim community can legally operate institutions to train new clergy in Turkey for future leadership. Patriarch Bartholomew Imost senior bishop among equals in the traditional hierarchy of Orthodox Christianity, said that he felt "crucified" living in Turkey under a government that did not recognize the ecumenical status of Patriarch and which would like to see his Patriarchate die out.
Since it did not annoy my ancestors, it will not annoy me, either. But it may annoy some [people] in my country. According to the Gallup Poll According to the Eurobarometer Poll Claims of increasing Islamization[ edit ] The rise of Islamic religiosity in Turkey in the last two decades has been discussed for the past several years. The New York Times published a report about Turkey innoting an increased polarization between secular and religious groups in Turkish society and politics.
Critics argue that Turkish public institutions, once staunchly secular, are shifting in favour of Islamists. Traditional stories of PinocchioHeidi, and Tom Sawyer were rewritten to include characters that wished each other a "God-blessed morning" and statements that included "in Allah's name"; in one rewrite, one of the Three Musketeers converted to Islam. Alcohol laws of Turkey Inthe parliament of Turkey passed legislation that bans all forms of advertising for alcoholic beverages and tightened restriction of alcohol sales.